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Tuesday, May 26, 2009

HOW TO PASS FMGE / MCI SCREENING TEST..???





















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Tricks to rem. Imp points---
1. Adrenal cortex layers and products
"Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex":
Layers:
Glomerulosa
Fasiculata
Reticulata
Respective products:
Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones (androgens)
Alternatively for layers: GFR
(Glomerular Filtration Rate, convenient since adrenal glands are atop kidney).

2. Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta
ABCD:
Alpha = Constrict.
Beta = Dilate.

3. Amino Acids:The ten essential amino acids:
"PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanine, Valine,Threonine,
Tryptophan Isoleucine, Methionine
Histidine, Arginine, Lysine, Leucine,

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4. Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy MCAT:
Metronidazole
Chloramphenicol
Aminoglycoside
Tetracycline

5. ABC'S of the aortic arch!
Aortic arch gives off the Bracheiocephalic trunk,
the left Common Carotid, and the left
Subclavian artery

6. Asthma:
management of acute severe "O SHIT":
Oxygen (high dose: >60%)
Salbutamol (5mg via oxygen-driven nebuliser)
Hydrocortisone (or prednisolone)
Ipratropium bromide (if life threatening)
Theophylline (or preferably aminophylline-if life threatening)

7. B vitamin names
"Tu Ro Na Pyare Cutte":
• In increasing order: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pyridoxine (B6) Cobalamin (B12)

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8. Betablockers: cardioselective betablockers
"Betablockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium"
• Cardioselective betablockers are:
· Betaxolol
· Acebutelol
· Esmolol
· Atenolol
· Metoprolol


9. Branches of the Brachial Plexus (In order from most lateral to most medial)
My Aunt Raped My Uncle

Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar


10. Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung
"A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm":
• In order from superior to inferior:
1. Apical
2. Posterior
3. Anterior
4. Lateral
5. Medial
6. Superior
7. Medial basal
8. Anterior basal
9. Lateral basal
10. Posterior basal


11. Prolactin and oxytocin: functions
PROlactin stimulates the mammary glands to PROduce milk.
Oxytocin stimulates the mammary glands to Ooze (release) milk.

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12. Radial n. innervates the BEST!!!!
Brachioradialis
Extensors
Supinator
Triceps


13. RNA viruses: negative stranded
"Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication":
Arena
Bunya
Paramyxo
Orthomyxo
Filo
Rhabdo
• Note: Negative RNA viruses need there own polymerase.




14. WBC Count: "Never Let Mom Eat Beans" and "60, 30, 6, 3, 1"
Neutrophils 60%
Lymphocytes 30%
Monocytes 6%
Eosinophils 3%
Basophils 1:





15. Weights of children with age
Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg

ABC'S of the aortic arch!
Aortic arch gives off the
Bracheiocephalic trunk,
left Common Carotid,
left Subclavian artery

Branches Of External Carotid Artery
Sneh Lta's Powdered Face Often Attracts Medical Students.

S= Superior Thyroid
L= Lingual
P= Posterior Auricular
F= Facial
O= Occipital
A= Ascending Pharyngeal
M= Maxillary
S= Superficial Temporal
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BRANCHES OF SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY ARE 5
VIT. C&D (Read as Vitamin C & D)
V = Vertebral artery
I = Internal Thoracic artery
T = Thyrocervical Trunk
C = Costocervical trunk ( from first br of left subclavian a. but arises from 2 branch of right side)
D= Dorsal scapular artery (branch of third part)

The branches of the Axillary Artery are: Sally Thompson Loves Sex And Pot pie.
Superior Thoracic, Thoracoacromial, Lateral Thoracic, Subscapular, Anterior Circumflex Humeral, Posterior Circumflex Humeral, and Profunda Brachii.

Brachial plexus
Rohit Tu Dekh Cold Beers:
Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
Branches of the Brachial Plexus (In order from most lateral to most medial)
My Aunt Raped My Uncle
Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar

Branches of the Facial Nerve
Ten Zebras Bought My Car
Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical

Orbital Bones- FLEZMS
Frontal, Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Zygomatic, Maxilla, Sphenoid

8 carpal bones
Starting from the thumb,
sneh lata tinde paka tere tinde kacche hain
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate.

TARSAL BONES
Tarzon Call Can Navi LIM3C
1. Talus
2. Calcaneus
3. Cuboid
4. Navicular
5. Lateral cuneiform
6. Intermediate cuneiform
7. Medial cuneiform

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ESSENCIAL AMINO ACID :- PVT. TIM HALL
P-henylalanine V-valine T-threonine T-tryptophan I-Isoleucine M-ethionine H-histidine A-arginine L-lysine L-leucine

AUDITORY PATHWAY :- ECOLI MT
E-8TH NERVE
C-COCHLEAR NUCLEI
O-SUPERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEUS
L-LATERAL LAMINISCUS
I-INFERIOR COLLICULUS
M-MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY
T-SUP TEMPORAL GYRUS

H. Pylori treatment regimen (rough guidelines)
TOMB:
· Tetracycline
· Omeprazole
· Metronidazole
· Bismuth

RNA enveloped viruses
FORT PR ABC
· Flavivirus/ Filo, Orthomyxo, Retro, Toga
· Paramyxo, Rhabdo
· Arena, Bunya, Corona

Acute inflammation features :- SLIPR:
Swelling, Loss of function, Increased heat, Pain, Redness


Tetrology of Fallot :-"don't DROP the baby":
· Defect (VSD)
· Right ventricular hypertrophy
· Overriding aorta
· Pulmonary stenosis

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes :- "Do Block AV":
Digoxin
B-blockers
Adenosine
Verapamil



The cranial bones are the PEST OF 6
Parietal Ethmoid Sphenoid Temporal Occipital Frontal

Layers of the epidermis
Grand son grate living Child.
Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander
Germinativum or Basal, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum

Medical history: disease checklist :- MJ THREADS:
Myocardial infarction Jaundice Tuberculosis Hypertension Rheumatic fever/ Rheumatoid arthritis Epilepsy Asthma Diabetes Strokes

Pain history checklist
"On Days Feeling Low Character, Run a Seven Pace Race":
1. Onset
2. Duration
3. Frequency
4. Location
5. Character
6. Radiation
7. Severity
8. Precipitating factors
9. Relieving factors

Dementia: some common causes
DEMENTIA:
Diabetes
Ethanol
Medication
Environmental (eg CO poisoning)
Nutritional
Trauma
Infection
Alzheimer's

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followed by shoulder rotation and delivery of the fetal body!
1. Every - Engagement
2. Damn - Descent
3. Female -Flexion
4. I -Internal Rotation
5. Eat -Extension
6. Returns-Restitution
7. Eagerly-External Rotation

Basic Amino Acids = "HAL"
Histidine, Arginine, Lysine.

Types of waves in EEG
BATS Drink Blood
pt awake & eyes Open— Beta
Pt awake but eyes Closed— Alpha
Stage I ----------------------- Theta
Stage II------------------------- Spindle & k complex
Stage III & IV ------------------- Delta
REM sleep ----------------------- Beta

Food poisoning: bugs inducing
"Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit":
· E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers]
· Clostridium botulinum [canned foods]
· Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs]
· Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat]
· Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood]
· Bacillus cereus [reheated rice]
· Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard]
· Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

Lower Leg Bones
Can't tell your tib from your fib?
The TIBia is the Thick, Inner Bone. The FibuLa is Finer, Fluted, and Lateral


Size in c.m. :- DUEDS StAR BAG
· DUEDS (25): Duodenum, Ureter , Esophagus, ……………… Descending colon, Sigmoid colon
· StAR (13) : Stomach, Ascending colon, Rectum
· BAG (8) : Bile duct, Appendices, Gallbladder


OPENING OF CRANIAL NERVES
Carebiun Optic 4 Super Stylo Internal 3 Jug Hae
1- Cribriform plate of ethmoid
2- Optic canal
3- Superior orbital fissure
4- Superior orbital fissure
5- (S R O ) Superior orbital fissure f.Rotundum, f.Oval
6- Superior orbital fissure
7- f. Stylohoidus
8- Internal acoustic meatus
9- Jugular formen
10- Jugular formen
11- Jugular formen
12- Hypoglossal canal








Muscle Physiology
•Muscle form 40 to 50% of body mass.
•About 600 muscles are identified.
Classification of Muscles:
•Depending on striations: Striated(Skeletal & Cardiac) & Nonstriated(smooth)
•Depending on Control: voluntary(Skeletal) & Involuntary(Cardiac & smooth)
•Depending on situation: Skeletal, Cardiac & Smooth.
•Muscle fiber or cell has a length b/w 1 – 4cm (Average 3cm) & diameter from 10 – 100microns.
•1 myofibril contains 1500 myosin filaments & 3000 actin filaments
•Sarcomere is the structural & functional unit of skeletal muscle.
Length – 2.5 to 3.2 mm.
Sarcomere lies b/w two ‘Z’ lines
•Each myofibril consists of alternate light (I or J band) & dark band (A or Q band).
•Each sarcomere consist of thin (Actin) & thick (myosin) filaments.
Myosin filament is present throughout the ‘A’ band.
No movement of myosin during muscular contraction.
•Actin filaments are formed by 3 types of proteins called actin, tropomyosin & troponin.
•The skeletal muscle is formed by 75% of water, 20% of proteins & 5%of organic substances.
•Troponin: is formed by 3 subunits; Troponin I – attached to F actin; Troponin T – attached to tropomyosin; Troponin C – attached to calcium ions.
•Following are the muscle proteins; Myosin; Actin; Tropomyosin; Troponin; Actinin; Titin; Desmin; Myogen & Myoglobulin.
•There is no movement in the myosin filament during muscle contraction.
•Actin filaments slide over the myosin filament during muscle contraction.
•Tropomyosin covers the active sites of actin.
•Rheobase: this is the least possible, i.e. (minimum) strength (Voltage) of stimulus which can excite the tissue.
•Chronaxie: it is the minimum time, at which a stimulus with double the rheobasic strength (voltage) can excite the tissue.
Chronaxie of skeletal muscle is shorter than that of cardiac and smooth muscles.
Cold lengthens chronaxie. whereas vagal stimulation shortens chronaxie.
•Refractory period is the period at which the muscle does not show any response to a stimulus.
•Skeletal muscles are purely aerobic & don’t have any fuel reserve.
•Dark, light bands & troponin are absent in smooth muscle.
•The study of electrical activity of the muscle is done by electromyography.
•The muscle ruptures when it is stretched to about 3 times its equilibrium length.








Constrictions in oesophagus :
· at commencement 15 cm from incisor teeth.
· at crossing over by aortic arch 22.5 cm from incisor teeth.
· at crossing over by left principal bronchus 27.5 cm from incisor teeth.
· at its point of piercing diaphragm 40 cm from incisor teeth.

Stomach :
· Cardiac orifice — Behind left 7th costal cartilage 1" from its junction with sternum.
· Pyloric orifice — 1.2 cm (0.5") to the right of midline on transpyloric plane.
· Capacity — at birth 30 ml; adults 1500 ml.
Length of small intestine: 6 to7 metres
Length of duodenum: 10” or 25 cm
1 st part: 5 cm
2nd part: 7.5 cm
3rd part: 10 cm
4th part: 2.5 cm
Length of large gut: 1.5 metres
Anal canal
Hilum of kidney — Transpyloric plane (LI).
Kidney:Length: 11 cm, Breadth : 6 cm, Antero-posterior diameter: 3 cm
Length of Ureter : 25 cm
Length of male urethra: 18-20 cm
Spermatic cord : 9-10 cm
Length of inguinal canal: 4 cm
Testis: Length-4.5 cm, Breadth-2.5cm, Anteroposterior dr-3
Ovary: Length -3 cm, Width-1.5 cm,Thickness-1 cm
Uterus: Length-7.5 cm, Breadth-5 cm,Antero-posterior diameter-2.5 cm
Weight :30 to 40 gms
Uterine tubes: Length-10 cm
Saphenous opening — Height 1.5 to 8 cm; Width 1 to 3 cm
Femoral sheath — Length 3 to 4 cm.
Femoral canal — Length 1.25 cm.
Tendo calcaneus — Length 15 cm.












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